Scientists have now identified two new diagnostic tissue biomarkers for malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Doctors identify mesothelioma using diagnostic tissue biomarkers. This is called immunohistochemistry.
The use of immunohistochemistry improves the accuracy of mesothelioma diagnosis in clinical practice. Yet, new methods for discovering diagnostic markers are still needed.
Following a Reverse Approach in a Rare Case
Mesothelioma is usually diagnosed after a person experiencing symptoms goes to a doctor. One thing a doctor may do is perform a tissue biopsy. The doctor will remove a part of the tissue (suspected mesothelioma) for examination.
Most tissue biopsies are done with a needle and then examined in a laboratory. The lab will look for specific biomarkers to find out if the tissue contains mesothelioma.
Japanese scientists have now used a reverse clinical approach on an archival tissue sample. They identified two new diagnostic tissue biomarkers for malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Microbiologists used gene expression profiling to analyze 54 genes. This analysis identified two new diagnostic tissue biomarkers, PHGDH and TRIM29.
Pathologists performed further immunohistochemical analysis on 48 mesothelioma and 20 pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma is the most common lung cancer in the United States.
Diagnosing Mesothelioma Faster
Many mesothelioma patients have a misdiagnosis or a delay in diagnosis.
A tissue biopsy is an important step in being diagnosed correctly. A biopsy can help doctors determine the cell type of the disease. This is important information that can be used to create an effective treatment plan.
These two new diagnostic tissue biomarkers can be used to diagnose mesothelioma quickly. Doctors can now tell the difference between mesothelioma and other cancers.
Scientists used mesothelioma patient surgical tissue samples between 2000 and 2003. The tissue microarray was prepared using a complex protocol.
This successful reverse translational approach is encouraging. Scientists can use similar protocols for the development of other novel diagnostic markers.
Possible Indicators of Poor Prognosis
Others have reported that PHGDH and TRIM29 biomarkers are clear in lung cancer. They are indicators of poor prognosis in lung cancer.
This study did not investigate indicators of prognosis in mesothelioma. The prognostic application of these two new diagnostic tissue biomarkers is unknown. Future research will need to be conducted in mesothelioma samples.
Reporting Two New Markers for the First Time
Two new diagnostic tissue biomarkers have been identified for malignant pleural mesothelioma. These biomarkers are PHGDH and TRIM29.
Scientists used a reverse translational approach. The discovery was based on a very rare single case.
Dr. Tomoaki Naka of Hokkaido University noted that this discovery “encourages the further use of such samples for the development of novel diagnostic markers.”
The diagnostic utility of these markers is particularly useful. It allows for the distinction between mesothelioma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma tumors.
Naka, T., Hatanaka, Y., Tabata, Y., Takasawa, A., Akiyama, H., Hida, Y., … & Matsuno, Y. (2022). Identification of Novel Diagnostic Markers for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Using a Reverse Translational Approach Based on a Rare Synchronous Tumor. Diagnostics, 12(2), 316. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12020316